Wnt canonical signaling pathway. A. When the wnt signaling pathway is not active, β-catenin is bound to the degradation complex composed by APC, axin, and the serine/theronine kinases CK1 and GSK3. The main role of the degradation complex is to phosphorylate β-catenin leading to its degradation by means of the proteasome-ubiquitin pathway. There are several negative regulators that operate at the receptor-ligand level; such as, Cer1, DKK, WIF1 and sFRP, whose function is to modulate positive signals induced by Wnts. B. The contact of wnt with its receptors leads to the stabilization of β-catenin and its accumulation in cytoplasm and nucleus. β-catenin displaces the transcriptional repressor groucho from the LEF/TCF complex, leading to the activation of target genes, such as c-myc and cyclinD1, which are involved in cell proliferation and cell cycle progression.