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Table 1 Demographics, lifestyles, and health characteristics and dietary intakes of study population by intakes of glycemic load in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–19941

From: Glycemic load is associated with HDL cholesterol but not with the other components and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994

  Energy-adjusted glycemic load2  
  Quartile 1
(< 119)
Quartile 2
(119 – 157)
Quartile 3
(157 – 204)
Quartile 4
(≥ 204)
P value 3
Glycemic load intake4      
   Men 95 138 177 244  
   Women 96 139 177 245  
Sex [n (%)]      <0.001
   Men 659 (14.6) 688 (14.6) 714 (13.6) 986 (15.3)  
   Women 443 (10.4) 458 (10.5) 506 (11.3) 557 (9.8)  
Race/ethnicity [n (%)]      <0.001
   Non-Hispanic white 621 (49.6) 634 (50.6) 597 (47.6) 481 (38.4)  
   Non-Hispanic black 411 (32.8) 312 (24.9) 288 (23) 288 (23)  
   Mexican American 179 (14.3) 264 (21.1) 331 (26.4) 442 (35.3)  
   Other 42 (3.4) 43 (3.4) 37 (3.0) 41 (3.3)  
Smokers [n (%)] 725 (57.9) 672 (53.6) 663 (52.9) 741 (59.2) <0.001
Prescription medication users [n (%)] 429 (34.2) 436 (34.8) 435 (34.7) 398 (31.8) <0.001
Vitamin/mineral supplement users [n (%)] 449 (35.8) 426 (34.0) 462 (36.9) 402 (32.1) <0.001
Age5 (y) 45.8 ± 0.5a 46.4 ± 0.5a 46.3 ± 0.5a 43.3 ± 0.5b <0.001
Body mass index5 (kg/m 2) 26.6 ± 0.2a 26.4 ± 0.1a,b 26.4 ± 0.2a,b 25.9 ± 0.1b 0.013
Alcohol intake5 (drinks/mo) 13 ± 0.8a 12 ± 0.6a,b 10 ± 0.5b 12 ± 0.7a,b 0.007
Dietary intakes6      
   Total energy (kcal/d) 2290 ± 35a,b 2224 ± 3a 2229 ± 30a 2378 ± 33b 0.002
   Fat (g/d) 92 ± 1.8a 86 ± 1.5 a, b 85 ± 1.4 b, c 89 ± 1.6c <0.001
   Protein (g/d) 88 ± 1.5a 83 ± 1.3a,b 84 ± 1.3a,b 88 ± 1.4b <0.005
   Carbohydrate (g/d) 254 ± 4.0a 258 ± 3.5a 269 ± 3.6a 295 ± 4.2b <0.001
   Fiber (g/1000 kca/) 7.7 ± 0.1 7.8 ± 0.1 8.1 ± 0.1 7.7 ± 0.1 0.077
  1. 1 n = 5011 (men, 3047; women, 1964).
  2. 2 Glycemic load is the product of the glycemic index of a food item and carbohydrate intake from that food in g divided by 100. Values not sharing common superscripts (a, b, c) are significantly different in a row using Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons after testing the hypothesis with t-test.
  3. 3 Significance for χ2-statistic for categorical variables or for F-statistic for continuous variables.
  4. 4 Values are medians.
  5. 5 Values are mean ± SEs.
  6. 6 Data were derived from the 24-hour dietary recalls.