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Table 3 Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for metabolic syndrome according to intakes of glycemic load in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–19941

From: Glycemic load is associated with HDL cholesterol but not with the other components and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994

  Energy-adjusted glycemic load2  
  Quartile 1 3
(< 119)
Quartile 2
(119 – 157)
Quartile 3
(157 – 204)
Quartile 4
(≥ 204)
P value 4
Positive for metabolic syndrome, n (%) 212 (4.2) 218 (4.4) 239 (4.8) 274 (5.5)  
Age, sex, and race-ethnicity adjusted 1.00 0.99 (0.75, 1.29) 1.22 (0.91, 1.63) 0.83 (0.62, 1.10) 0.21
Multivariate-adjusted5 1.00 0.96 (0.61, 1.50) 1.37 (0.88, 2.12) 0.81 (0.53, 1.23) 0.09
  1. 1 n = 5011 (men, 3047, women, 1964). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III Guidelines (waist circumference >40 inches for men and >35 inches for women, triacylglycerol <150 mg/dL (1.69 mmol/L) for both sexes, HDL-cholesterol <40 mg/dL (1.04 mmol/L) for men and <50 mg/dL (1.29 mmol/L) for women, blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm Hg for both sexes, and fasting blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) for both sexes.
  2. 2 Glycemic load is the product of the glycemic index of a food item and carbohydrate intake from that food in g divided by 100.
  3. 3 Referent category.
  4. 4 Significance of metabolic syndrome indicator variable in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (P for Wald F).
  5. 5 Logistic regression was adjusted for sex, age, race-ethnicity, smoking status, poverty income ratio, prescription medication use, vitamin/mineral supplement use, and intakes of alcohol, protein, fat, and dietary fiber.