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Table 5 Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in various categories of study population: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1

From: Serum vitamin D concentrations are related to depression in young adult US population: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Characteristic Deficiency 2 % (n) Insufficiency 3 % (n) P-value 4
All subjects 19.6 (2701) 30.4 (2679) <0.001
Sex    <0.001
   Men 15.5 (964) 31.1 (1304)  
   Women 23.6 (1737) 29.8 (1375)  
Race-ethnicity    <0.001
   Non-Hispanic white 10.1 (215) 28.5 (648)  
   Non-Hispanic black 60.0 (1588) 28.7 (745)  
   Mexican American/Hispanic 26.5 (790) 43.1 (1151)  
   Other 32.4 (108) 38.0 (135)  
Geographical location    <0.001
   Northeast 12.4 (288) 27.5 (284)  
   Midwest 11.3 (391) 28.9 (493)  
   South 27.1 (1467) 30.4 (1053)  
   West 23.5 (555) 35.0 (849)  
Urbanization    <0.001
   Urban living 25.1 (1612) 31.6 (1392)  
   Rural living 14.2 (1089) 29.2 (1287)  
Supplement use 5    <0.001
   Yes 15.8 (627) 29.5 (753)  
   No 22.8 (1890) 30.1 (1657)  
Poverty income ratio 6    <0.001
   <1.0 (below poverty line) 28.8 (849) 34.3 (797)  
   2.0-<3.0 (low-middle income) 21.2 (745) 29.0 (672)  
   3.0-<4.0 (high-middle income) 17.1 (692) 30.7 (725)  
   ≥4.0 (high income) 13.9 (192) 27.8 (242)  
Body mass index (kg/m2)    <0.001
   Underweight (<18.5) 15.4 (71) 27.6 (98)  
   Normal weight (18.5-<25) 16.0 (1128) 28.0 (1271)  
   Overweight (25-<30) 20.3 (749) 31.9 (774)  
   Obese (≥30) 31.0 (748) 36.3 (525)  
  1. 1 Data associated with prescription medicine use and serum creatinine concentrations are not presented because these two variables were found non-significant in the χ2 test for proportions of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency. Data associated with vitamin D sufficiency (>75 nmol/L) are not shown.
  2. 2 Serum concentrations of 25 (OH) vitamin D <50 nmol/L
  3. 3 Serum concentrations of 25 (OH) vitamin D 50-75 nmol/L
  4. 4 Significance of variable for proportions of persons with vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency in the χ2 test
  5. 5 Vitamin/mineral supplement use 1 month prior to the survey
  6. 6 The ratio of a family's income to their appropriate threshold income