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Table 1 Represents studies regarding prevalence, gender distribution, reason for smoking and misconception

From: Harmful effects of shisha: literature review

Study Country Study population Type of study Sample size Prevalence Mean age Gender distribution Reason for smoking Misconception of shisha smoking is better than cigarette smoking
Brockman NL et al. [5] United States Students of two large universities Cross-sectional 307 facebook profile owner 60(27.8%) 18.8 ± 0.6 Male = 31(51.7%) - -
        Female = 29(48.3%)   
Sutfin EL et al. [9] United States Students of eight universities Cross sectional 3770 40.3% 17.9 ± 1.6 Male = 328(50%) - 32%
        Female = 325(50%)   
Braun RE [11] United States University studens Cross sectional 2000 15.4% 23.1 ± 12.32 Male = 40% Socializing/partying = (29%), peer influence = (27%), relaxation (25%)  
        Female = 60%   
Taha AZ et al. [16] Saudi Arabia Students of three colleges. Cross sectional 500 male students 12.6% 6 to 18 years Study only on male students - -
Jawaid A et al. [17] Pakistan Students of Four univerisities Cross sectional 450 participants 241(53.6%)   Male = 268(59.6%) Curiosity = 61.4% 269(60%)
        Female = 182(40.4%) Pleasure seeking = 46.9%  
         Peer pressure = 22.8%  
         Boredom = 17.8%  
         Stress = 10.8%  
Jaffri SB [18] Pakistan Students of college and universities Cross sectional 422 students 90(49%) 21.6 Male = 30% Curiosity = 42.9% 29(7.1)
        Female = 15.2% Pleasure seeking = 33.1%  
         Boredom = 18.4%  
         Previous smokers = 14.6%  
         Peer pressure = 14.6%  
         Stress = 10.3%  
Rehman S [4] Pakistan Four cities Cross sectional 406 participants 246(61%) 22.27 ± 4 Male = 175(71%) Curiosity = 61% 282(69%
        Female = 71(29%) Social trends = 55%  
         Peer pressure = 57%  
Gadalla S [19] Qualyobia governorate Two rural secondry schools Cross sectional 635 students 19% 12 Male = 26% Smokers have more friends = 34% of males, 26% of the females. -
        Female = 5%   
         Smoking makes boys look handsome = 8% of males, 3% of females