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Table 2 Represents studies regarding prevalence, gender distribution, reason for smoking and misconception

From: Harmful effects of shisha: literature review

Serial no Study Country Prevalence Study population Type of study Sample size Mean age Gender distribution Reason for smoking Misconception of shisha smoking is better than cigarette smoking
1 Amin TT et al. [22] Egypt 53.9% Secondry school students Cross sectional 1,652   Male = 30.3% 1) more socially acceptable than cigarettes (52.1%) 49.7%
         Female = 8.5%   
          2) relieve stress and tensions (37.8%)  
2 Israel E et al. [23] Egypt   Cafe workers Cross sectional - 20 - - -
3 Al-Naggar RA [24] Malaysia 20% Medical students Cross sectional 300 22.5 ± 2.5 - - -
5 Maziak W et al. [25] Syria - University students Cross sectional 587 Male = 19.2 ± 2.2 Male = 62.6% - -
        Female = 21.7 ± 3.2 Female = 29.8%   
6 Braun RE [11] USA 15.4% University students Cross sectional 2,000 23.1 ± 12.32 Male = 40% Socializing/partying = (29%), peer influence = (27%), relaxation (25%) -
         Female = 60%   
7 Aljarrah k et al. [26] Jordan 24.4% Hookah users of cafe of san diego down town Cross sectional 235 17-35 years Male = 32(24.2%)   58.3%
         Female = 24(24.5%)   
8 Dar-Odeh NS [27] Jordan Male = 21(106), Female = 53 (63%) Three jordanian universities Cross sectional 1454   Male = 21(106), Female = 53(63%)   89.06