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Table 2 The pathophysiological effects of laraparoscopy on cardiac patients

From: Anesthetic challenges of patients with cardiac comorbidities undergoing major urologic surgery

Pathophysiologic effect Clinical impact Patients in risk
Tachycardia ↑ likelihood for myocardial ischemia/infarction, decompensation of arrhythmias, severe heart failure Preexisting coronary artery disease
↑ Afterload
↓ Preload ↓stroke volume, ↓ cardiac output, ↑ likelihood for decompensation of preexisting heart failure and coronary artery disease Preexisting chronic heart failure
↓ Venous return
Preexisting chronic preoperative arrhythmia
  1. ↑: Increased, ↓: Decreased.