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Table 1 Main studies regarding the effects of auditory stimulation on cardiac autonomic regulation

From: Association between central auditory processing mechanism and cardiac autonomic regulation

Authors and year Main conclusions
Lee et al., 2010 [11] White noise exposure over 50 dB increases sympathetic activity and there is strong correlation between LF/HF ratio and noise intensity.
Roque et al., 2013 [12] The authors suggested that relaxant baroque and excitatory heavy metal music slightly decrease global heart rate variability because of the equivalent sound level.
Roque et al., 2013 [13] It was indicated that acute exposure to heavy metal music affected the sympathetic activity in healthy women.
Nakamura et al., 2007 [14] Music reduces renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure through the auditory pathway, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, and histaminergic neurons.
De Castro et al., 2013 [15] Pleasure in response to music induces dopamine release in the striatal system.
Kraus et al., 2010 [16] Music training presents responses similar to physical exercise and it is a resource that tones the brain for auditory fitness.
Sarkamo et al., 2008 [17] Musical auditory stimulation improved emotional and cognitive recovery in subjects with post-stroke.
  1. LF/HF ratio: Low frequency/high frequency ratio; dB: decibel.