- Original research
- Open Access
Co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder
© Bakare et al. 2009
Received: 11 December 2008
Accepted: 01 June 2009
Published: 01 June 2009
Adolescent onset bipolar disorder often presents with co-morbid disorders of which psychoactive substance use disorders are notable. Mania symptoms and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders prone adolescents with bipolar disorder to impulsivity, impaired judgment, and risk taking behavior which often includes sexual risk behavior. There are dearth of information on pattern of co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of co-morbid disorders and determined associated factors of sexual risk behavior among adolescents with bipolar disorder.
Socio-demographic information was obtained from the adolescents using socio-demographic questionnaire. Clinical interview, physical examination and laboratory investigations were employed to establish co-morbid disorders in these adolescents during the outpatient follow up visits over a one year period.
A total of forty six (46) adolescents with bipolar disorder were followed up over a one year period. Twenty two (47.8%) of the adolescents had co-morbid disorders with cannabis use disorders, alcohol use disorders, conduct disorder with or without other psychoactive substance use accounting for 23.9%, 8.7%, 13.0% respectively and HIV infection, though a chance finding accounting for 2.2%. Twenty one (45.7%) of the adolescents had positive history of sexual risk behavior, which was significantly associated with presence of co-morbid disorders (p = 0.003), level of religion activities in the adolescents (p = 0.000), and marital status of the parents (p = 0.021).
When planning interventions for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, special attention may need to be focused on group of adolescents with co-morbid disorders and propensity towards impulsivity and sexual risk behavior. This may help in improving long term outcome in this group of adolescents.
Co-morbid conditions had been known to characterize adolescent onset bipolar disorders [1–3] and co-morbid disorders impact negatively on outcome in adolescents with bipolar disorder [1, 2, 4, 5]. Youths with bipolar disorder had been found to be prone to sexual abuse  and often exhibit sexual risk behavior . Family and social dynamics had also been shown to influence co-morbidity and outcome in adolescent onset bipolar disorder .
There are dearth of information on prevalence and pattern of co-morbid disorders in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries. Information is also limited on sexual risk behavior and its associated factors in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in this environment.
Attempt was made by this study to determine the prevalence and pattern of co-morbid diagnoses in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder. It also determined the prevalence of sexual risk behavior and its associated factors in these adolescents. It assessed the association between co-morbid disorders and history of sexual risk behavior among the adolescents.
Location of the study was the outpatient unit of Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, New Haven, Enugu (FNHE), Nigeria.
The participants are adolescents attending the outpatient unit of FNHE, Nigeria on outpatient follow up visits with diagnosis of either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria  and who had the first episode of their illness for one year or more preceding the outpatient follow up visits. The included adolescents were eighteen years of age and below as at the time of outpatient follow-up. The diagnoses of bipolar disorder in these adolescents were made independently by at least two trained psychiatrists based on criteria specified in DSM-IV. The co-morbid diagnoses in these adolescents were also made by independent assessment of at least two trained psychiatrists and the diagnoses made were based on criteria specified in DSM-IV
Permission for the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of FNHE, Nigeria. The nature of the study was explained to the participants and consent was obtained from the adolescents and their caregivers.
Socio-demographic questionnaire was designed to obtain information about gender, age, age at onset of illness, number of hospital admissions in the past year during the period of follow up, marital status of the parents among others.
Socio-demographic questionnaire was used to obtain demographic information from the participated adolescents. Co-morbid disorders were assessed through clinical interview, physical examination and laboratory investigations through the one year period of outpatient follow up. Clinical interview was also used to obtain history of co-morbid substance use, sexual risk behavior (defined as having unprotected sexual intercourse, intercourse with commercial sex workers, sexual intercourse with multiple partners without protection in the past year), level of religion activities which was rated as 'high' if the adolescent participated in worship/church activities for more than twice a week, 'moderate' if once to twice a week and 'low' if fortnightly or not at all. The adolescents were seen and interviewed together with their parents/guardians at various intervals on outpatient basis ranging between 4 to 10 outpatient visits within the period of one year depending on the individual adolescent. During the course of follow up on outpatient basis, some adolescents suffered relapsed symptoms of their illness and therefore were admitted as inpatients with continuation of the follow-up process on inpatient basis.
Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, (SPSS), version 15. Prevalence and pattern of co-morbid disorders were computed and qualitative inter-group data were compared with Chi-square test.
Socio-demographic variables and clinical parameters of the adolescents
Marital Status of the Parents
Level of Religion Activities
History of Sexual Risk Behavior in the Past Year
Number of Hospital Admissions in the Past Year
Prevalence and pattern of co-morbid disorders over a one year period
Prevalence and pattern of co-morbid disorders over a one year period
Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV) Infection
Alcohol Use Disorders
Cannabis Use Disorders
Conduct disorder with or without other Psychoactive Substances Use
Combined Prevalence of Co-morbid disorders
Gender specific prevalence of psychological co-morbidity
Gender specific prevalence of psychological co-morbidity
Alcohol Use Disorders
Conduct Disorder ± Other Psychoactive Substance Use
Cannabis Use Disorder
History of sexual risk behavior and the associated factors
Twenty one (45.7%) of the adolescents had positive history of sexual risk behavior in the past one year. Having a history of sexual risk behavior was significantly associated with presence of co-morbid disorders (χ2 = 8.91, df = 1, p = 0.003). History of sexual risk behavior was also significantly associated with level of religion activities (χ2 = 37.70, df = 2, p = 0.000), with 'moderate' to 'high' level of religion activities offering protective effect on exhibiting sexual risk behavior. History of sexual risk behavior was also significantly associated with marital status of the parents (χ2 = 5.34, df = 1, p = 0.021), with adolescents of single parents more likely to have history of sexual risk behavior.
About forty eight percent of the adolescents had co-morbid psychiatric and medical disorders in addition to the bipolar disorder. The pattern of co-morbid disorders included cannabis use disorders, alcohol use disorders, conduct disorder with or without other psychoactive substances use, and HIV infection, which was a chance finding heralded by presentation of symptoms that arose clinical suspicion of the diagnosis in one of the adolescents. Therefore, substance use disorders accounted for the significant ratio of co-morbidity in these adolescents with bipolar disorder. Substance use disorders had also been noted to be a prominent problem in healthy adolescents in the general population in Nigeria. However, the findings among these adolescents with bipolar disorder revealed some salient differences compared to what obtained in the past general population studies [9, 10]. For example, the prevalence of alcohol use disorders of 8.7% found in this study is significantly lower than that of 15.6% found in one study that assessed people of comparative age groups in high school in Nigeria  and that of about 14% for past year in another study that cut across different age groups of Nigerian population . Another interesting finding is that while alcohol use problems tend to be more common among the males in these general population studies [9, 10], the contrast was the finding in these adolescents with bipolar disorder. The prevalence of 23.9% Cannabis use disorder found among these adolescents significantly exceeded the figure of 3.7% documented among people of comparable age range and 0.4% documented in people of different age range in Nigeria general population respectively [9, 10]. The high prevalence of Cannabis use disorder in adolescents with bipolar disorder in this environment need to be further explored to determine factor(s) that may be responsible for this finding.
History of sexual risk behavior was present in about forty six percent of the adolescents. Having a history of sexual risk behavior was significantly associated with presence of co-morbid psychiatric and medical diagnoses. Having a history of sexual risk behavior was also significantly associated with level of religion activities and marital status of the parents, with 'moderate' to 'high' level of religion activities and married status of the parents offering protective effect on exhibiting sexual risk behaviors. The prevalence of 45.7% history of sexual risk behavior found in adolescents with bipolar disorder in this study is significantly higher than the observation of prevalence rates of 25.0 to 29.3% documented among healthy adolescents of comparative age drawn from the general population in one study . This suggests that the presence of diagnosis of bipolar disorder in adolescents in this environment may make them more prone to exhibiting sexual risk behavior and its attendant consequences.
Co-morbidity had been documented to characterized early onset bipolar disorder [1, 3, 5]. The prevalence of co-morbid disorders of forty eight percent found in this study is comparable to the rates of co-morbid disorders, especially of substance use disorders found in earlier studies carried out in developed countries of the world [3, 12].
Manic symptoms and co-morbid substance use disorders in adolescent bipolar disorder predispose affected adolescent to impulsivity, impaired judgment and risk taking behavior. These attributes could make such adolescent prone to sexual risk behavior. About forty six percent of adolescents that participated in this study had history of sexual risk behavior and our finding is in line with that of Meade et al  who found closely related prevalence of sexual risk behavior in patients with bipolar disorder. Co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders accounted for the highest prevalence of co-morbidity among adolescents with bipolar disorder studied and a significant association was found between presence co-morbidity and history of sexual risk behavior. This finding concurred with that of Meade et al  that found association between history of sexual risk behavior and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders in patients with bipolar disorder.
Sexual risk behavior in these adolescents predisposes them to risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Presence of HIV infection as a co-morbid condition was a chance finding in one of these adolescents with bipolar disorder, this was because they were not routinely screened for any STDs including HIV infection unless there are symptoms presentation that arose suspicion of the diagnosis as occurred in one of these adolescents. Co-morbidity of HIV infection and other STDs in adolescent with bipolar disorder may need further evaluation in future studies. Although, the prevalence of about two percent presence of HIV co-morbidity among these adolescents is significantly lower than the rate of five percent documented as community prevalence of HIV infection in Nigeria by the 2003 Sentinel Survey , it still remained a pointer to the need to pay attention to issue of STDs in adolescents with bipolar disorder. Presence of mania symptoms had been noted to predispose individuals with bipolar disorder to engage in sexual risk behaviors and thus in turn predispose them to contracting HIV infection and it had also been documented that primary HIV infection in an individual may present with classical symptoms suggestive of mania. Therefore, a vicious cycle effect between mania symptoms and HIV infection had been suggested [14, 15].
The association of history of sexual risk behavior with marital status of the parents, with adolescents of single parents being more likely to have such history underscored the importance of family and social dynamics in adolescent onset bipolar disorder outcome . The family and social dynamics of adolescents with bipolar disorder should be given a good attention when planning interventions for such adolescents.
Presence of co-morbid disorders, especially psychoactive substance use disorders and sexual risk behavior and its attendant complications in adolescent onset bipolar disorder is a pointer to poor outcome and could cause the affected adolescents significant impairment in functioning [16, 17] and mortality from risk taking behaviors and suicidal acts [18, 19].
This is a clinical descriptive study that did not employ a case-control approach, although the findings of this study had been compared to previous findings in studies that assessed adolescents drawn from the general population sample. The socio-economic status of the parents which constitutes one of the factors in family and social dynamics could not be assessed because of the peculiar socio-cultural difficulty in volunteering information on income level in this environment. Another limitation of this study was that most of the information gathered on co-morbidity was based on unstructured clinical interview of the adolescents and their parents rather than using standardized algorithms. However, this is not expected to influence significantly the findings of this study because the interviews were conducted by trained specialists in psychiatry.
Adolescents with bipolar disorder who suffer co-morbid disorders, especially psychoactive substance use disorders and who exhibit impulsivity and sexual risk behavior may need to be given special attention when planning interventions for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. This may help to improve long term outcome in this group of adolescents. To the best of our knowledge, there are no past studies that have examined issue of co-morbidity in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in this environment and therefore the present data would provide a template for future longitudinal studies among adolescents with bipolar disorder in this environment.
We thanked all the adolescents and their care givers that consented to participate in the study.
- Perlis RH, Miyahara S, Marangell LB, Wisniewski SR, Ostacher M, DelBello MP, Bowden CL, Sachs GS, Nierenberg AA, STEP-BD Investigators: Long-term implications of early onset in bipolar disorder: data from the first 1000 participants in the systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD). Biol Psychiatry. 2004,55(9):875–881.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baldassano CF: Illness course, co-morbidity, gender, and suicidality in patients with bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006,67(Suppl 11):8–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krishnan KR: Psychiatric and medical co-morbidities of bipolar disorder. Psychosom Med 2005,67(1):1–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Birmaher B, Axelson D, Strober M, Gill MK, Valeri S, Chiappetta L, Ryan N, Leonard H, Hunt J, Iyengar S, Keller M: Clinical course of children and adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006, 63:175–183.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Birmaher B: Longitudinal course of pediatric bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2007,164(4):537–539.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Romero S, Birmaher B, Axelson D, Goldstein BI, Gill MK, Iosif AM, Strober MA, Hunt J, Esposito-Smythers C, Ryan ND, Leonard H, Keller M: Prevalence and correlates of physical and sexual abuse inchildren and adolescents with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 2009,112(1–3):144–50.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meade CS, Graff FS, Griffin ML, Weiss RD: HIV risk behavior among patients with co-occurring bipolar and substance use disorders: associations with mania and drug abuse. Drug Alcohol Depend 2008,1:92(1–3):296–300.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (DSM- IV) 4 Edition American Psychiatric Association 1994.Google Scholar
- Gureje O, Degenhardt L, Olley B, Uwakwe R, Udofia O, Wakil A, Adeyemi O, Bohnert KM, Anthony JC: A descriptive epidemiology of substance use and substance use disorders in Nigeria during early 21 st century. Drug Alcohol Depend 2007,91(1):1–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abasiubong F, Atting I, Bassey E, Ekott J: A comparative study of use of psychoactive substances amongst secondary school students in two local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract 2008,11(1):45–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bamidele JO, Asekun-Olarinmoye EO, Odu OO, Amusan OA, Egbewale BE: Sociodemographic characteristics and health risk behaviours among students of a tertiary institution in south western Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2007,36(2):129–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baethge C, Baldessarini RJ, Khalsa HM, Hennen J, Salvatore P, Tohen M: Substance abuse in first-episode bipolar I disorder: indications for early intervention. Am J Psychiatry 2005,162(5):1008–1010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Federal Ministry of Health (FMH), Nigeria: Technical Report on 2003 National HIV sero-prevalence sentinel survey. 2004.Google Scholar
- Ellen SR, Judd FK, Mijch AM, Cockram A: Secondary mania in patients with HIV infection. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1999,33(3):353–360.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakimuli-Mpungu E, Musisi S, Mpungu SK, Katabira E: Primary mania versus HIV-related secondary mania in Uganda. Am J Psychiatry 2006,163(8):1349–1354.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goldstein BI, Strober MA, Birmaher B, Axelson DA, Esposito-Smythers C, Goldstein TR, Leonard H, Hunt J, Gill MK, Ivengar S, Grimm C, Yang M, Ryan ND, Keller MB: Substance use disorders among adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders. Bipolar Disord 2008,10(4):469–478.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cardoso BM, KauerSant'Anna M, Dias VV, Andreazza AC, Cereser KM, Kapczinski F: The impact of co-morbid alcohol use disorder in bipolar patients. Alcohol 2008,42(6):451–457.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hawton K, Sutton L, Haw C, Sinclair J, Harriss L: Suicide and attempted suicide in bipolar disorder: a systematic review of risk factors. J Clin Psychiatry 2005,66(6):693–704.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goldstein TR, Birmaher B, Axelson D, Ryan ND, Strober MA, Gill MK, Valeri S, Chiappetta L, Leonard H, Hunt J, Bridge JA, Brent DA, Keller M: History of suicide attempts in pediatric bipolar disorder: factors associated with increased risk. Bipolar Disord 2005,7(6):525–535.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.